What is dumpy level and dumpy level survey,components,limitations

What is dumpy level A dumpy level is a precision instrument used for measuring angles in the horizontal plane, typically designed to measure vertical angles. It is a type of optical “spirit” level. The name comes from “dumpy level,” which was an instrument with a telescope and crosshairs that was able to measure all three … Read more

What is pre tensioning and post tensioning in pre stressed concrete

Post tension

Pre-Tensioning in Prestressed Concrete The Pre-stressed Concrete Institute (PCI) defines Pre-Stressing as “the application of a force to the reinforcing steel in concrete, so that it is loaded and unloaded periodically, to develop tensile stresses in the steel. The periodic loading produces compressive stresses which resist cracking.” Pre-tensioning is done by pulling or tightening cables … Read more

Plinth Beams | How Plinth Beams Differ From Tie Beams

Plinth Beam

Plinth beams are horizontal structural elements or beam elements that are constructed between the wall and the foundation as shown in the figure. The plinth beams distributes the load coming from the walls constructed above evenly to the below foundation elements.plinth beams are generally constructed connecting the columns of the building similar to a tie … Read more